Richard Shelby, United States Senate, Republican Party, Alabama Civics Chapter Three Section Two Video

So they were all giving jobs to come up with a constitution that all the states would agree to. The first plan was the virginia plan. The virginia plan said that the larger states would get more votes than the smaller states. They believed that it was important that the larger states which had more population got to have more of an input than the people that had less people. If you’ve got a million people in your colony and they call it nature’s got a hundred thousand, then you think. Okay, well, our opinions mean more because there’s more of us and the smaller states aren’t going to agree with this. The article of confederation only consisted of a legislative branch where the one house congress, the new idea, was for three branches of government. Now these are the three branches of government, the legislative branch, which is the law making body the executive branch, which is the law enforcing body and the judicial branch, which is the law interpreting body. Now the legislative branch consists of what we call congress, which has two houses: the house of representatives and the senate and it’s made up of 535 members 100 in the senate, 435 in the house of representatives and we’re, going to talk a little bit about how that’s Set up in just a little while but they’re the ones that made the laws and we’re going to have entire chapters on one on each of these three. So we’re going to get into this in very good detail right now, we’re not going to focus on as much.

You just need to know that the legislative branch makes the laws it consists of congress. The executive branch enforces the laws and it’s what the president is over. The president is over the executive branch they’re, the law enforcement body, so the reason why the president is over is the the commander in chief of the military it’s. The reason why the president is over the department of justice homeland security border patrol all these kind of things is because it is the law enforcing body, so where the legislative branch is the law making body. The executive branch is the law enforcing body, and the judicial branch is the law interpreting body. So when the legislative branch makes the laws and the executive branch enforces them and someone goes to jail or goes to court or whatever the judicial branch or the judges will interpret the law and that’s when you go to court and they determine whether you’re innocent or Guilty and that’s headed up by the supreme court, which is the highest court system in the land, so we’re going to talk very briefly. If you want a little more of these people, you can put the powerpoint slides and look at it we’re going to look at the different members of representation for our area and who is over us all the way up to the president legislative branch. Our two senators urged senator richard shelby and senator tommy tuberville, which was elected this past year when defeated doug jones, also in the different districts.

The first district representative is jerry carl. The second district representative is barry moore. The third district representative is mike rogers and of course you can like i said you can look at the powerpoints and you can look at the districts i’m not going to read over all that, because it’ll be a very long. Video and the point is i keep these condensed so that you can get the most important information, so you can look at those digital information uh on the powerpoint, our representative, here in district four, which is uh representative robert aderholt, and he is from the high level Area, but he is over this district, which you see there is franklin marion, lamar, fayette walker, winston coleman, lawrence marshall, ottawa and dekalb counties. The representative from district five is mo brooks the representative for district six is gary palmer and then the seventh district representative is representative. Terry soil, we have seven members of our us of the. We have seven members of the alabama part of the house of representatives and we have two senators. This is the president president, joe biden. Of course he just got elected and just became the president. This is vice president kamala harris who is the 49th president of vice president united states on the state level. This is our governor, kate, ivey, the secretary of state john merrill, whose wife is actually originally from phil campbell. This is the judicial branch. This is the chief justice, john roberts.

These are the judges on the supreme court. This is justice, clarence, thomas justice, stephen breyer, justice, samuel alito, justice, sonia sotomayer, justice, elena kagan justice, no gorsuch justice, brett kavanaugh and then the newest member, which just replaced justice. Ruth bader ginsburg was justice, amy coney barrett, so she was just nominated or just made a supreme court justice. So we’re back on these two opposing plans. The virginia plan involved the legislature dividing up into two houses in the virginia plan. States would have more votes if they were a bigger state. The smaller states worried that the bigger states would have more power just because they had more population, and then they was afraid they would try to keep people from moving the smaller states and get more people into their states. It would just be a whole big thing. So they issued out the new jersey plan, which would want each state to get one vote. So again, if you’ve got a million people in your state or in your state and this other state has a hundred thousand you’d all get one vote, each state would get one vote instead of had the two houses of legislature. It would only have the one under new jersey plan and the larger states did not want to accept this. This is going to lead to roger sherman, coming out what’s known as the connecticut compromise or the great compromise. The committee proposed that congress would have two houses like we do.

Each state would have equal representation in the senate, but the house of representatives will depend on population and that’s what we have today. So what we have is in the senate. There are two senators from each state: 50 states means there are 100 senators. You have 435 members of the house of representatives it’s based on population as of right now and when the numbers from the 2020 census come back, we may lose a seat, gain a seat or we stay the same right now we have seven members of the house Of representatives we went over those a few minutes ago. Those were the seven people that were over the different districts in alabama. We have seven members of the house of representatives and two senators that gives us nine electoral votes when we get to electoral votes. In a few minutes, the great compromise is the compromise for the virginia and the new jersey plans. In this compromise there would be two houses in congress, the house of representatives and the senate, and just like i just said the senate will be based on equal representation. The house will be based on population once this problem was solved. They had the issue: how to re calculate the population, because at that point for to figure out how many members of the house representatives you’ve got. You got to figure out your population, so they want to try to figure this out now, of course, at the time the south wanted to can’t claim the slaves as part of their population, because they had a lot of slaves.

There was 550 000, almost half a million or over a half million african americans in slavery, and most of them was in the south. So the south want to count these slaves as part of the population to increase the representation. Now the north side. Look, you consider them property. Normally, you don’t consider on people. So why would should we consider people now? So we don’t want to keep them as part of the population, and the cells said well yeah, but they’re there, so they should be counted in so they come up with the three fifths compromise and the three fifths compromise, and these different things it’s a great compromise And the three phase compromise are both have videos on google classroom. You can watch, but uh would equal every five slaves would equal three free free people so for every five slaves, three of them would count as as people. So if you’ve got 550 000 slaves, then that would be 330 000 actual people that would count as as in the population, so that’s kind of how it worked. It didn’t kill all the slaves as people, but it did count three fifths of them. There was also the vision on trading issues, so the north want to allow congress to regulate both foreign trade and commerce between the states, but the south did lightning because they feared those are taxes and exports, and that would hurt themselves because most of the south’s economy Was based on exports selling things other places, and this would hurt the south’s economy because it depended so much on their exploits the southerners also feared.

Congress would put an end to the slave issue, so basically they were like. We don’t want y’all to end slavery. We don’t want y’all to tax our exports. We just want you to leave us alone. They decided to compromise and allow congress to regulate trades with the states with other and with other countries and exchange. The north agreed that they could not tax exports or interfere with the slave trade before 1808. They just kind of put that data on it and said: okay, well, congress can’t deal with slavery until 1808, which they still didn’t uh and they can’t change in terms of taxing exports. They also debate on who should decide the presidency someone in congress to pick it. Others thinking that the people should the compromise was the electoral college people elected to select the president and vice president. Initially, it was people named by each state legislature. Today we vote now. This is how this works in the electoral college. Each state is given a certain amount of representation, so when it comes down to it, we have a certain amount of electoral votes. Like i mentioned earlier, since we have seven members of the house of representatives and two senators, we get nine electoral votes, seven for the members of the house of representatives and two for the senate. That gives us nine so and we’ll get to the electoral tournament. Just a minute, but basically what happens is when we vote for president alabama gets seven of those or nine votes.

California gets 53 because they’re a lot bigger population. So what happens is yes as a state? We are voting, and we pick who we vote for, for the president. Alabama is a winner. Take all state in this previous election. The majority of the people in the state of alabama voted for donald trump because of that donald trump got all nine of our electoral votes alabama. Even though a lot of people in the state didn’t vote for donald trump, because the majority did he got all the votes from the state of alabama all nana in the electoral college, it’s very confusing. If you have any questions, please email me and i don’t care to talk to you a little bit more about it, it’s just hard to explain in a short period of time, plus we’re, going to cover this a lot over the course of this time. So it’s not going to be like you know, this is all you’re going to hear, but we’re going to keep talking about it. This is the electoral college map. As you see in alabama, we have a 9 because we get 9 votes. California has 55, they get 55 votes, texas gets 38., they get. That means they get 38 votes. People always ask up here what happens in maine, why maine has red and blue and that’s, because maine is not a winner takeoff state. If you look down here at the bottom, these are split votes.

There are four votes in maine that you can get in the 2016 election, which is what this map is based off of. Hillary clinton got three of the main votes and donald trump got one of them, because in one congressional district, donald trump won that district hillary clinton won. The other four nebraska also is not a winner takeoff state, but in nebraska in 2016, donald trump won all three of nebraska’s or all five of nebraska’s votes, the three main votes and then the two extra ones that goes with different congressional districts. So most states are winner, take all, and the whole point is to get to the number 270.. Now you say how do we get to the number 270 and that doesn’t talk about so i’ll talk about it and we’ll talk about it again, a little bit later on so again focus on the stuff for the test it’s on the study guide. This is a lot of info. We get to the number 270 because, as i mentioned, there are 535 members of congress, there’s also three votes that washington dc gets just for being washington d.c. So you see right here. Dc gets three votes. That brings the number to 538 votes. When you divide 538 in half the majority is 270., so that means that whoever gets to the number 270 will have the majority of the electoral votes. Therefore, they become the president that’s how it works, so california gives 55 towards the 270.

. We give 9 towards the 270 because they have a lot more people that goes to the population and the whole idea of the new jersey plan all summer. They hammered out the details on september 17 1787. They met for the last time. The constitution was ready to be signed, and then they had to ratify it to ratify or approve it. If you remember, they had to have nine of 13 states voting, yes to approve it. Americans reacted to the proposed constitution. Different ways. Federalists supported the constitution as it was. Federalism is a form of government that’s, divided between the federal government and the states, but the anti federalists opposed it without a bill of rights, and that was the big problem for the anti federals was the absence of a bill of rights. Finally, the federalists agreed that they would add it in they added in the bill of rights and on june 21st, 1798 new hampshire became the non state vote.

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