This recommendation was particularly important in the flu season of 2020 to 2021. During when the pandemic, coveted 19 brought extensive challenges for the healthcare providers. The first contest is to make differentiating diagnoses between seasonal flu and covet nitin based on symptoms. In times like this flu, vaccination not only reduces the risk of respiratory infections but also decreases the affliction of co infections by the two highly contagious viruses here are the objectives that i wish to achieve in this lecture. The influenza vaccine brings a simple benefit to the individual. The person gains immunity against influenza virus getting vaccinated does not mean that the person will not get infected. Instead, the individual acquires the active immunity artificially through vaccination and the immunity will help the individual fighting against the infection. That is influenza vaccine, decreases the severity of the symptoms and shortens the duration of the illness. When more and more individuals in the community receive vaccination, the protection against infection of influenza would also cover those who are vulnerable and those who are not immunized, usually those who are at higher risk to influenza infection includes the young, the old and the sick ones. People who are not immunized are at risk to infection. Immunocompromised individuals are at high risk to any types of infection, including influenza. Healthcare personnels are also considered at high risk to contracting flu because of the frequent exposures. Healthcare providers should grab every opportunity to encourage and to administer the influenza vaccination per recommendation by centers for disease control and prevention, as well as the advisory committee on immunization practices.
Everyone who is six months of age or older, should receive licensed and age appropriate influenza vaccine annually. There are three types of influenza vaccines, inactivated recombinant and life attenuated influenza vaccines. It is common to see a number tagged at the end of an influenza vaccine. This number indicates that from which influenza viruses type a and type b are the antigens incorporated in the preparation. For example, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine contains antigens from three viruses, including two type, a viruses, h1n1 and h3n2, and one lineage of type b virus also note that some abbreviations might be used to specify the particular inactivated vaccines. Here we have four quadrivalents. This one is an advented quadrivalent. This one is a cell culture based quadrivalent. Here we have a high dose and a standard dose quadrivalent in activated influenza vaccines. Not all vaccine types are appropriate for all client. There is a minimal age requirement for different types of vaccines. Inactivated influenza vaccine can be given to people 6 months of age and older. The minimal age for recombinant influenza vaccine is 18 years of age when a life attenuated influenza vaccine can be given to anyone of h2 or older. It has a long list of control indications because it contains live viruses. A general contraindication for influenza vaccine is severely allergic reaction to a component contained in the vaccine, wait i’m allergic to eggs. I should not take influenza vaccine if i’m allergic to eggs great concern. Egg allergy is not a contraindication for influenza vaccine.
The acip recommends that people who are severely allergic to eggs receive influenza vaccination under medical surveillance. General precautions for all influenza vaccines include those who are moderately or severely ill, with or without fever, and to those who develop guillain barre syndrome within six weeks after previous dose of influenza vaccine, a attenuated influenza vaccine has an extensive list of contraindications when children or adolescents, Taking aspirin or salicylate containing medications during a viral infection, especially flu and chicken pox, there is an increasing risk for developing a fatal disease called ray’s syndrome. Therefore, live virus vaccines are contraindicated in pediatric patients who take aspirin or salicylate containing therapy. Please teach the parents to avoid using aspirin or salicylate containing antipyretic for comfort after the children have received a life attenuated virus vaccine. A life attenuated influenza vaccine is also contraindicated in children aged two to four years with asthma or has experienced symptoms of asthma. For the last 12 months live viral, vaccines are contraindicated for any individuals who are immunocompromised and the close contacts caregivers of severely immunosuppressed patients severely immunosuppressed patients are people who need reverse isolation or protective precaution. Expectant moms are not to take a life viral vaccine of any kind active communication between cerebral spinal fluid and the pharynx’s nose or ear is another contraindication for a life attenuated influenza vaccine with that said, patients with cochlear implants are not candidates for this vaccine because of The risk for csf leakage, antiviral medications, can interfere the effectiveness of a life attenuated influenza vaccine.
All influenza antivirals should be held for two weeks after receiving the life attenuated influenza vaccine. It is contraindicated to take a life attenuated influenza vaccine if the patient has taken osotamovir or the nemovir within 48 hours before vaccination for paramavir a life attenuated influenza vaccine should not be given. If the patient has taken this antiviral agent within five days before vaccination, should the patient have taken black severe within 17 days before vaccination, an alternative vaccine should be considered. As we all know, nurses can be assigned to take care of patient who is severely immunosuppressed. What if the nurse took a live attenuated influenza vaccine? Can she or he still take care of a patient who needs reverse isolation? The answer is yes. The nurse can take care of a severely immuno suppressed patient, who is on reverse isolation. If this assignment takes place seven days after the vaccination, in addition to the general precautions, like any other influenza vaccines, the precautions for the life attenuated influenza vaccine include patients who are five years of age or older, with asthma and those with underlying medical conditions such as Chronic pulmonary cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, neurologic, hematologic and metabolic disorders, these conditions can precipitate a severe influenza infection. Here is the table with names, preparations and dosages for the influenza vaccines available. Let’S summarize it children under 3 years of age should receive 0.25 milliliters per dose of influenza vaccine. The high dose quadrivalent vaccines are prepared for seniors age 65 years and older.
The research has indicated that high dose trivalent provided more efficient protection for this group of population. Anyone else should receive 0.5 milliliter per dose of influenza vaccine flu season starts from october through march. In the united states, flu vaccines should not be given too early way before the season like in july or august, because the immunity will not last to protect the individual. At the late season, everyone should receive one annual dose of flu vaccine by end of october. However, children of six months to eight years of age who are taking flu vaccine for the first time in life, need to take two doses of influenza vaccines. The first dose should be given as soon as when the vaccine becomes available, usually in september then, after an interval of four weeks at least administer the second dose of vaccine for a full coverage. What, but my son turns nine after his ever first influenza vaccine. What should we do? No problem because he got his first ever dose when he was eight years old. He should take the second dose four weeks after the first dose. Oh no! What? If a 0.25 milliliters vaccine was administered by mistake, instead of a half a milliliter vaccine, well in a situation like this, we need to see where the patient is when the mistake is found. If the mistake was found immediately and the patient is still in, the clinic administer another 0.25 milliliters vaccine to make up the full dose.
However, if the patient has left the clinic, when the mistake was realized, we will need to administer a full dose of half a milliliter vaccine. As soon as the patient returns to the clinic, a life attenuated influenza vaccine is administered as a spray into the nostrils. The intranasal sprayer contains 0.2 milliliter of vaccine. The dose is evenly separated by a divider when administered this vaccine have the client sit upright, insert the tip of the sprayer into one nostril spray. The first half of the vaccine into one nostril remove the attached divider on the sprayer device, then repeat the same procedure by spraying, the remaining half into the other nostril. What do i do if the client sneezed cough or if the liquid dripped out after the vaccination, should, i repeat the dose great question? If the client sneezed coughed or dripped after vaccination, there is no need to repeat or make up the dose, although not a contraindication nasal congestion could affect the effectiveness of vaccine given via intranasal spray. An alternative vaccine and route should be considered. Inactivated and recombinant influenza vaccines are given via an intramuscular route at a 90 degree angle of needle insertion, injection site needle length and gauge are interrelated and equally important for a safe and efficient vaccination. The injection site should be where, with sufficient muscle mass and at the same time, away from structures like nerves, blood vessels and bones the length of the needle is associated with injection site reaction.
According to studies, the needle should be long enough to allow injection into the deep muscle mass a size of 22 to 25 gauge with one inch length is preferred aspiration when giving im vaccine is not necessary. It could be painful for infants, though here is the table. Summarizing the anatomical sites recommended for recipients at different ages, along with the length of the needle for an intramuscular vaccination for children at two years of age or younger. The preferred site for an im vaccination is the enterolateral aspect of the thigh. The needle should be one inch long to prevent the immunobiologic into the subcutaneous layer if the second preferred site, which is the gluteal, is used for infants, mind the anatomical landmarks for locating an accurate site. Deltoid can be used for anyone who is one year of age or older. As a matter of fact, it is the preferred site for anyone, three years of age and older, when using deltoid for children, the needle length should be 5 8 to 1 inch long for adolescents and adults adjust the length of the needle according to the recipient’s body, Build life is dynamic, so is giving a simple vaccine both inactivated and recombinant influenza vaccines can be administered with other life or inactivated vaccines. As long as these vaccines are given at separate anatomical sites. On the other hand, the life attenuated influenza vaccine can be administered with other life or inactivated vaccines at the same time, if not given.
At the same time, a minimum interval of four weeks is needed to separate two live vaccines. If patients receive an inactivated influenza vaccine inform the client that minor irritations to the injection site, such as soreness redness and swelling, could be experienced. Also inform the patient that some people might experience symptoms like minor cold, including fever, muscle aches and headache, teach the client to rest. If feeling tired, encourage fluid intake as tolerated application of a warm compression or taking a hot shower, might alleviate the muscle, aches or other mild symptoms. Cool compression over the injection site helps alleviating the local discomfort instruct the client to report to the physician, if experiencing muscle, weakness and paralysis. If patients receive a life attenuated influenza vaccine patient might experience local symptoms such as runny nose, nasal congestion and wheezing patients might experience headache, vomiting muscle aches fever sore throat and cough symptoms like having a mild flu. Usually these discomforts are self limiting and subside. In a couple of days, however, if the client experienced severely allergic reaction call 911, the national childhood vaccine injury act, mandates all health care providers to provide a copy of related vaccine information statement to the recipients prior to vaccination. Two dates should be documented. The editing date of the vis distributed and the date on which the vis was provided here are the links to the vis for both life, attenuated influenza vaccine and inactivated influenza vaccine.